Reference: Schwingshackl, L., M. Christoph, and G. Hoffmann, Effects of Olive Oil on Markers of Inflammation and Endothelial Function-A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Nutrients, 2015. 7(9): p. 7651-75.
One-sentence summary: Evidence from randomised controlled trials shows olive oil exerts beneficial effects on markers of inflammation and endothelial function.
Study type: A systematic review and meta-analysis of 28 RCTs on olive oil and markers of inflammation or endothelial function.
Diet: Diets containing olive oil (consumed in pure form or supplemented as capsules; ranging between approximately 1 g per capsule and 50 mL in pure form.)
Population: Adult populations who consumed olive oil for at least 4 weeks, and authors did not specify country of origin. There was no exclusion for disease, and studies included subjects with a range of health conditions (e.g. healthy as well as Type 2 diabetes, chronic heart failure, persons with >1 coronary event) and medications.
The olive oil intervention resulted in:
Quality assessment: Most studies failed to provide enough information for a thorough assessment of bias analysis.
The bottom line: Markers of inflammation (CRP, IL-6) and endothelial function (FMD, sE-Selectin) were improved following interventions with olive oil. These markers are generally regarded to influence CVD risk and may help to explain the cardio-protective associations of olive oil in observational studies.
Mayr, H.L., et al., Mediterranean-type diets and inflammatory markers in patients with coronary heart disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Nutr Res, 2018. 50: p. 10-24.
Schwingshackl, L. and G. Hoffmann, Mediterranean dietary pattern, inflammation and endothelial function: a systematic review and meta-analysis of intervention trials. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis, 2014. 24(9): p. 929-39.
Ahluwalia, N., et al., Dietary patterns, inflammation and the metabolic syndrome. Diabetes Metab, 2013. 39(2): p. 99-110.
Barbaresko, J., et al., Dietary pattern analysis and biomarkers of low-grade inflammation: a systematic literature review. Nutr Rev, 2013. 71(8): p. 511-27.