Reference: Godos, J., et al., Adherence to the Mediterranean diet is inversely associated with metabolic syndrome occurrence: a meta-analysis of observational studies. Int J Food Sci Nutr, 2017. 68(2): p. 138-148.
One-sentence summary: The Mediterranean diet was inversely associated with metabolic syndrome, although the data are limited and come mostly from cross-sectional studies.
Study type: A systematic literature review and meta-analysis of 12 observational studies (8 cross-sectional and 4 prospective studies).
Diet: Adherence to a Mediterranean diet defined through scores that estimated the conformity of the dietary pattern of the studies population with the traditional Mediterranean dietary pattern.
Outcomes measured: Occurrence or risk of metabolic syndrome.
Population: 7 studies were conducted in Mediterranean countries and 5 in non-Mediterranean countries (Iran = 2, USA = 2, Poland = 1). 10 studies were in healthy populations, with 1 study in those with a high CVD risk and 1 conducted in diabetics.
Quality assessment: The quality of all studies was assessed according to the Newcastle–Ottawa quality assessment scale and all studies scored high quality.
The bottom line: A Mediterranean dietary pattern was associated with a 19% reduced risk of Metabolic syndrome, but the available evidence is limited, coming mostly from cross-sectional studies. More research from prospective cohorts and clinical trials are required to better understand the association.
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